Cell Biology

Cell Biology News -- ScienceDaily Cell biology news. Read the latest research news on cell biology and see related videos.

  • Plants sacrifice 'daughters' to survive chilly weather
    on June 23, 2017 at 12:50 pm

    Plants adopt different strategies to survive the changing temperatures of their natural environments. This is most evident in temperate regions where forest trees shed their leaves to conserve energy during the cold season. In a new study, a team of plant biologists found that some plants may selectively kill part of their roots to survive under cold weather conditions. […]

  • Protein mingling under blue light
    on June 23, 2017 at 12:50 pm

    One of the current challenges in biology is to understand rapidly-changing phenomena. Interestingly, only a small fraction of them is due to proteins acting in isolation, the majority of biological events are regulated by proteins acting together in clusters. Researchers have developed a new tool, called "CRY2clust", to trigger protein cluster formation in response to blue light. This new technique has a much faster response rate and higher sensitivity to light than existent methods. […]

  • How a single chemical bond balances cells between life and death
    on June 22, 2017 at 10:28 pm

    With SLAC's X-ray laser and synchrotron, scientists measured exactly how much energy goes into keeping a crucial chemical bond from triggering a cell's death spiral. […]

  • Seafood poisoning bug thwarts a key host defense by attacking the cell's cytoskeleton
    on June 22, 2017 at 7:32 pm

    The leading cause of acute gastroenteritis linked to eating raw seafood disarms a key host defense system in a novel way: It paralyzes a cell's skeleton, or cytoskeleton. […]

  • How pheromones trigger female sexual behavior
    on June 22, 2017 at 6:31 pm

    A new study showed how a male pheromone in mice enhances sexual behaviors in females -- and how it may enhance a different behavior, aggression, in males -- by identifying distinct neural circuits and neurons that generate a particular behavioral response to specific chemical signals. The findings point to a model for further investigating how sex-specific innate behaviors in living things are controlled. […]

  • How eggs got their shapes
    on June 22, 2017 at 6:30 pm

    The evolution of the amniotic egg -- complete with membrane and shell -- was key to vertebrates leaving the oceans and colonizing the land and air but how bird eggs evolved into so many different shapes and sizes has long been a mystery. Now, an international team of scientists took a quantitative approach to that question and found that adaptations for flight may have been critical drivers of egg-shape variation in birds. […]

  • A rising star: Researchers dissect the process by which blood vessels shrink, which could have...
    on June 22, 2017 at 6:30 pm

    It's a tiny marine invertebrate, no more than 3 millimeters in size. But closely related to humans, Botryllus schlosseri might hold the key to new treatments for cancer and a host of vascular diseases. […]

  • How bacterial organelles assemble
    on June 22, 2017 at 6:29 pm

    Scientists are providing the clearest view yet of an intact bacterial microcompartment, revealing at atomic-level resolution the structure and assembly of the organelle's protein shell. This work could benefit research in bioenergy and pathogenesis, and it could lead to new methods of bioengineering bacteria for beneficial purposes. […]

  • Switchable DNA mini-machines store information
    on June 22, 2017 at 6:29 pm

    Biomedical engineers have built simple machines out of DNA, consisting of arrays whose units switch reversibly between two different shapes. The arrays' inventors say they could be harnessed to make nanotech sensors or amplifiers. Potentially, they could be combined to form logic gates, the parts of a molecular computer. […]

  • UV-sensing protein in brain of marine annelid zooplankton
    on June 22, 2017 at 4:20 pm

    Larvae of a marine ragworm Platynereis dumerilii have been studied as a zooplankton model, and possess photoreceptor cells in the brain to regulate circadian swimming behavior. This study revealed that a photoreceptive protein in the brain photoreceptor cells is UV (ultra-violet) sensitive. Since avoidance of UV irradiation is a major cause of a large-scale daily movement of zooplankton, the UV sensor in the brain would be important for physiology and ecology of the zooplankton model. […]

  • Cells in fish's spinal discs repair themselves
    on June 22, 2017 at 4:20 pm

    A unique repair mechanism has been discovered in the developing backbone of zebrafish that could give insight into why spinal discs of longer-lived organisms like humans degenerate with age. The repair mechanism protects fluid-filled cells of the notochord, the precursor of the spine, from mechanical stress. Notochord cells eventually form the gelatinous center of intervertebral discs, the structures that often degenerate with age to cause back and neck pain. […]

  • Select memories can be erased, leaving others intact
    on June 22, 2017 at 4:19 pm

    Different types of memories stored in the same neuron of the marine snail Aplysia can be selectively erased, according to a new study. […]

  • Satellite data to map endangered monkey populations on Earth
    on June 22, 2017 at 4:19 pm

    Using a combination of satellite and ground data, a research team can map multiple indicators of monkey distribution, including human activity zones as inferred from roads and settlements, direct detections from mosquito-derived iDNA, animal sound recordings, plus detections of other species that are usually found when monkeys are present, such as other large vertebrates. […]

  • How pythons regenerate their organs and other secrets of the snake genome
    on June 22, 2017 at 4:19 pm

    Snakes exhibit incredible evolutionary adaptations, including the ability to rapidly regenerate their organs and produce venom. Scientists studied these adaptations using genetic sequencing and advanced computing. Supercomputers helped the team identify a number of genes associated with organ growth in Burmese pythons, study secondary contact in related rattlesnake species, and develop tools to recognize evolutionary changes caused by natural selection. […]

  • New insight into a central biological dogma on ion transport
    on June 22, 2017 at 2:40 pm

    New research results show how active transport of potassium can be achieved by a membrane protein complex that has roots in both ion pump and ion channel super-families. The results shed new light on what define channels and pumps. […]

  • Can animal diet mitigate greenhouse emissions?
    on June 22, 2017 at 12:29 pm

    The inclusion of agroindustrial by-products in pig feed can reduce the nitrous oxide emissions (N2O) of the slurry used as manures up to 65%, suggests new research. […]

  • Pathogen that causes sleeping sickness: Promising new target
    on June 22, 2017 at 12:27 pm

    The life-threatening African trypanosomiasis, also called sleeping sickness, is caused by protozoa of the species Trypanosoma brucei. A team of researchers has studied the pathogens and reported exciting news: The trypanosomes have a so far unknown enzyme which does not exist in humans and other vertebrates. This makes it a promising target for therapy. […]

  • Reconstruction of ancient chromosomes offers insight into mammalian evolution
    on June 21, 2017 at 6:51 pm

    Researchers have gone back in time, at least virtually, computationally recreating the chromosomes of the first eutherian mammal, the long-extinct, shrewlike ancestor of all placental mammals. […]

  • New mechanism for genome regulation discovered
    on June 21, 2017 at 5:29 pm

    The mechanisms that separate mixtures of oil and water may also help the organization of a part of our DNA called heterochromatin, according to a new study. Researchers found that liquid-liquid phase separation helps heterochromatin organize large parts of the genome into specific regions of the nucleus. The work addresses a long-standing question about how DNA functions are organized in space and time, including how genes are silenced or expressed. […]

  • Zika: Studying the 'rebound virus'
    on June 21, 2017 at 4:54 pm

    Scientists are investigating how the Zika virus is able to find a safe harbor in an infected host's tissue and stage a rebound weeks after the virus was seemingly cleared by the immune system. […]

  • Understanding how pain is bugging you
    on June 21, 2017 at 4:05 pm

    Gut bacteria play a key role in regulating abdominal pain and its associated changes in the brain and spinal cord, at least in mice, report scientists. […]

  • Active 24/7 and doing great: New clues to circadian clocks
    on June 21, 2017 at 2:31 pm

    Circadian clocks control the day-night cycle of many living beings. But what do the pacemakers do in animals whose activities do not follow this pattern? Scientists have now looked into this question. […]

  • Clear view on stem cell development
    on June 21, 2017 at 2:31 pm

    Today, tracking the development of individual cells and spotting the associated factors under the microscope is nothing unusual. However, impairments like shadows or changes in the background complicate the interpretation of data. Now, researchers have developed a software that corrects images to make hitherto hidden development steps visible. […]

  • Newly identified protection mechanism serves as first responder to cellular stress
    on June 21, 2017 at 2:31 pm

    A new type of rapid-response defense mechanism has been discovered that helps protect cells from environmental stress while giving slower, well-known protection systems time to act. […]

  • Extra-virgin olive oil preserves memory, protects brain against Alzheimer's
    on June 21, 2017 at 2:31 pm

    The Mediterranean diet is associated with a variety of health benefits, including a lower incidence of dementia. Now, researchers have identified a specific ingredient that protects against cognitive decline: extra-virgin olive oil. In a new study, the researchers show that consumption of extra-virgin olive oil protects memory and learning ability and reduces the formation of amyloid-beta plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain -- classic markers of Alzheimer's disease. […]

  • The rise of giant viruses
    on June 21, 2017 at 2:04 pm

    Giant viruses acquire genes piecemeal from others, researchers have found. The discovery has implications for bioenergy production and environmental cleanup. […]

  • Finding the perfect match: New approach to battle drug-resistant bacteria
    on June 20, 2017 at 6:31 pm

    Antibiotics were the wonder drug of the 20th century, but bacteria evolved resistance. According to the CDC, more than 2 million people in the U.S. develop MDR infections every year. Researchers have now developed a rapid screen to pair existing FDA-approved drugs to combat MDR infections. […]

  • How phytoplankton rule the oceans
    on June 20, 2017 at 6:30 pm

    Photosynthesis is a unique biological process that has permitted the colonization of land and sea by plants and phytoplankton respectively. While the mechanisms of photosynthesis in plants are well understood, scientists are only now beginning to elucidate how the process developed in phytoplankton. […]

  • Isolating anti-Alzheimer's compounds in plants
    on June 20, 2017 at 3:41 pm

    Scientists have developed a method to isolate and identify active compounds in plant medicines, which accurately accounts for drug behavior in the body. Using the technique, they have identified several active compounds from Drynaria Rhizome, a traditional plant medicine, which improve memory and reduce disease characteristics in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. […]

  • Blocking yeast-bacteria interaction may prevent severe biofilms that cause childhood tooth decay
    on June 20, 2017 at 3:40 pm

    In early childhood caries, a severe form of tooth decay that affects more than a third of toddlers in the US, yeast often partners with bacteria to form an intractable biofilm. New research reveals the mechanisms and suggests a way to block the interaction and reduce plaque. […]