Cell Biology

Cell Biology News -- ScienceDaily Cell biology news. Read the latest research news on cell biology and see related videos.

  • How immature cells grow up to be red blood cells
    on August 18, 2017 at 4:35 pm

    Researchers have identified the mechanism behind red blood cell specialization and revealed that it is controlled by an enzyme called UBE2O. This finding could spark the development of new treatments for blood disorders and cancers. […]

  • Mineral layer around avian flu pathogen may be the cause for human infections
    on August 18, 2017 at 2:25 pm

    Avian flu can be transmitted from birds to humans; transmission among humans, however, is limited. The reason may be an eggshell-like mineral layer that the virus acquires due to the high calcium concentration in the intestines of birds. These mineralized viruses are significantly more infectious and, in addition, more robust and heat stable than the native viruses. […]

  • Cheesemaking secret unlocked
    on August 18, 2017 at 2:23 pm

    Researchers say their new knowledge on the inner workings of a bacterium has important implications for Australia's billion dollar cheese industry. The research group has explained the regulation of an enzyme in the bacterium Lactococcus, which is used as a starter culture in cheese production. […]

  • Mechanisms explaining positional diversity of the hindlimb in tetrapod evolution
    on August 18, 2017 at 2:23 pm

    Elucidating how body parts in their earliest recognizable form are assembled in tetrapods during development is essential for understanding the nature of morphological evolution. Researchers found in eight tetrapod species that the position of the sacral vertebrae and the hindlimbs is determined by the initiation timing of Gdf11 gene expression. This will contribute to a forthcoming model explaining the coupling of spine and hindlimb positioning - a major step in fully understanding tetrapod evolution. […]

  • How whip-like cell appendages promote bodily fluid flow
    on August 18, 2017 at 2:23 pm

    Researchers have revealed that a molecule called Daple is essential for the correct orientation and coordinated beating of cilia on the surface of cells lining ventricles in the brain. Without Daple, the cilia develop a random arrangement and cannot produce a uniform flow of CSF. This in turn leads to a build-up of fluid, which is associated with swelling of the head, known as hydrocephalus. […]

  • Mitochondria: A map of the cell's powerhouse
    on August 18, 2017 at 2:23 pm

    Researchers are mapping the distribution of all proteins in mitochondria for the first time. […]

  • Histone 1, the guardian of genome stability
    on August 18, 2017 at 1:21 pm

    Genomic instability is the main risk factor for tumor development in humans. Therefore understanding its origin and and exploring therapeutic targets is paramount. Histone 1 silences a region of the genome that causes irreparable DNA damage when translated and is lethal for the organism. […]

  • Gene variant activity is surprisingly variable between tissues
    on August 18, 2017 at 1:21 pm

    Every tissue has its own pattern of active alleles, a large-scale study has found. Researchers were able to show that the differential allele activity is regulated by tissue-specific, regulatory DNA elements known as enhancers - a process that could also be involved in many diseases. […]

  • Allergies: Cross-reactivity between cypress pollen and peaches/citrus fruits explained
    on August 18, 2017 at 1:21 pm

    Medical researchers have identified the likely origin of the cross-reactivity between cypress pollen, peaches and citrus fruits. Their work has shown that these sources contain allergens belonging to a new family of proteins involved in pollen food associated syndrome. This discovery paves the way for the development of novel allergy diagnostic tests. […]

  • Spider silk protein may be useful for engineering artificial cardiac tissue
    on August 18, 2017 at 1:20 pm

    Ever more people are suffering from cardiac insufficiency. The main cause of reduced cardiac functionality lies in the irreversible loss of cardiac muscle cells due to disease, especially ischemic diseases such as cardiac infarction. There is still no treatment to reverse damage of this nature. Research is ongoing to develop methods of repairing such damage to normalize cardiac function. A promising approach: cardiac muscle tissue made of spider silk. […]

  • The laws of attraction: Pheromones don't lie, fruit fly research suggests
    on August 17, 2017 at 9:00 pm

    For the first time, scientists have shown that a female fruit fly's pheromone signals can actually tell males how much energy her body has invested in egg production versus in storing away energy for her own survival. And it's a signal that she can't change in order to make herself more attractive. […]

  • New gene catalog of ocean microbiome reveals surprises
    on August 17, 2017 at 8:20 pm

    Oceanographers report completing the largest single-site microbiome gene catalog constructed to date. With this new information, the team discovered nutrient limitation is a central driver in the evolution of ocean microbe genomes. […]

  • Disrupted gut microbiome makes children more susceptible to amoebic dysentery
    on August 17, 2017 at 6:18 pm

    Children with lower diversity of microbial species in their intestines are more susceptible to severe infection with the Entamoeba histolytica parasite, according to a new study. […]

  • Gene that makes large, plump tomatoes identified
    on August 17, 2017 at 6:18 pm

    Farmers can grow big, juicy tomatoes thanks to a mutation in the cell size regulator gene that occurred during the tomato domestication process. […]

  • Worm atlas profiles gene readouts in every cell type in the animal
    on August 17, 2017 at 6:18 pm

    A worm atlas has been built that profiles gene readouts for every kind of cell in the animal. This is the first time this type of comprehensive profiling for a multi-cellular organism has been created. The study was conducted at a larval stage of the roundworm C. elegans. The resource should have many uses, such as for studies on how genetic instructions guide the formation of body parts. […]

  • Non-toxic, lubricant-infused coatings deter mussels and prevent their attachment by disrupting...
    on August 17, 2017 at 6:17 pm

    Mussels are one of the worst perpetrators of biofouling, or the unwanted accumulation of organisms on underwater structures. A team of scientists has demonstrated that a lubricant-infused surface effectively prevents mussels from sticking by masking the solid surface with a layer of liquid. […]

  • Super-photostable fluorescent labeling agent for super-resolution microscopy
    on August 17, 2017 at 6:17 pm

    Chemists have developed a super-photostable fluorescent dye, PhoxBright 430 (PB430), to visualize cellular ultrastructure by super resolution microscopy. The exceptional photostability of this new dye enables continuous STED imaging and together with its ability to fluorescently label proteins, PB430 demonstrates its use in the 3D construction and multicolor imaging of biological structures. […]

  • Bacteria stab amoebae with micro-daggers
    on August 17, 2017 at 6:15 pm

    Researchers have discovered a type of bacteria that uses tiny daggers to prevent itself from being eaten by amoebae. The scientists also resolved the three-dimensional structure of the mechanism that allows the micro-daggers to be shot quickly. […]

  • Female mouse embryos actively remove male reproductive systems
    on August 17, 2017 at 6:15 pm

    A protein called COUP-TFII determines whether a mouse embryo develops a male reproductive tract, according to new research. The discovery changes the long-standing belief that an embryo will automatically become female unless androgens, or male hormones, in the embryo make it male. […]

  • Antibiotics found to weaken body's ability to fight off disease
    on August 17, 2017 at 6:15 pm

    Adding another reason for doctors to avoid the overuse of antibiotics, new research shows that a reduction in the variety of microbes in the gut interferes with the immune system's ability to fight off disease. […]

  • Hemorrhagic fevers: Countering inflammation to prevent circulatory failure
    on August 17, 2017 at 4:23 pm

    Hemorrhagic fevers are severe viral diseases that are often fatal. Researchers have now identified messenger substances of the immune system, which in infected mice lead to the development of shock. […]

  • Peroxisomes identified as 'fighters' in the battle against bacterial infections
    on August 17, 2017 at 4:21 pm

    Peroxisomes are required for cells in the innate immune response to bacteria and fungi. Now scientists have found that peroxisomes are necessary for proper functioning of the innate immune system, the body's first line of defense against microorganisms. […]

  • Olfactory receptors that enable ants to smell and recognize workers, males, and their queen...
    on August 17, 2017 at 4:21 pm

    To reign supreme in a colony, queen ants exude a special scent, or pheromone, on the waxy surface of their body that suppresses ovary development in their sisters, rendering the latter reproductively inactive workers that find food, nurse the young and protect the colony. Now, researchers have begun to unravel the molecular mechanisms behind how ants sense these pheromones and how they control reproduction regulation and other social activities in ant communities. […]

  • Are stem cells the link between bacteria and cancer?
    on August 17, 2017 at 1:28 pm

    A new mechanism of stomach gland regeneration reveals impact of Helicobacter pylori infection. […]

  • Study shows response to phytase varies among canola meal varieties
    on August 16, 2017 at 10:14 pm

    Canola meal, which is included in diets fed to pigs as a protein source, is also relatively high in phosphorus. However, most of the phosphorus in canola meal is bound to phytic acid, and microbial phytase is often added to diets to help make more phosphorus available to pigs. New research shows that not all kinds of canola meal respond equally to the addition of phytase. […]

  • Injecting manure instead of spreading on surface reduces estrogen loads
    on August 16, 2017 at 8:06 pm

    With water quality in the Chesapeake Bay suffering from excess nutrients and fish populations in rivers such as the Susquehanna experiencing gender skewing and other reproductive abnormalities, understanding how to minimize runoff of both nutrients and endocrine-disrupting compounds from farm fields after manure applications is a critical objective for agriculture. […]

  • Problems with DNA replication can cause epigenetic changes that may be inherited for several...
    on August 16, 2017 at 6:53 pm

    Scientists reveal that a fault in the process that copies DNA during cell division can cause epigenetic changes that may be inherited for up-to five generations. They also identified the cause of these epigenetic changes, which is related to the loss of a molecular mechanism in charge of silencing genes. Their results will change the way we think about the impact of replication stress in cancer and during embryonic development, as well as its inter-generational inheritance. […]

  • Evolutionary history of imperiled salmon stocks
    on August 16, 2017 at 6:18 pm

    New technologies for analyzing DNA may transform how imperiled species are considered and managed for conservation protection, according to a study. These technologies can be applied to a wide range of species around the world -- from mushrooms to walruses -- but the study focuses on two iconic species of Pacific salmon: steelhead and chinook. […]

  • Using barcodes to trace cell development
    on August 16, 2017 at 5:46 pm

    There are various concepts about how blood cells develop. However, they are based almost exclusively on experiments that solely reflect snapshots. Scientists now present a novel technique that captures the process in a dynamic way. Using a 'random generator,' the researchers label hematopoietic stem cells with genetic barcodes that enable them to trace which cell types arise from the stem cell. […]

  • Modern genetic sequencing tools give clearer picture of how corals are related
    on August 16, 2017 at 5:46 pm

    As corals face threats from ocean warming, a new study uses the latest genetic-sequencing tools to help unravel the relationships between three similar-looking corals. […]