Cell Biology

Cell Biology News -- ScienceDaily Cell biology news. Read the latest research news on cell biology and see related videos.

  • How the smallest bacterial pathogens outwit host immune defenses by stealth mechanisms
    on October 20, 2017 at 2:16 pm

    Despite their relatively small genome, mycoplasmas can cause persistent and difficult-to-treat infections in humans and animals. A study has shown how mycoplasmas escape the immune response. Mycoplasmas 'mask' themselves: They use their small genome in a clever way and compensate for the loss of an enzyme that is important for this process. This could be shown for the first time in vivo, thus representing a breakthrough in the research of bacterial pathogens. […]

  • Chromosomes may be knotted
    on October 20, 2017 at 2:16 pm

    Little is known about the structures of our genetic material, chromosomes, which consist of long strings that -- according to our experience -- should be likely to become knotted. However, up to now it has not been possible to study this experimentally. Researchers have now found that chromosomes may indeed be knotted. […]

  • Climate shifts shorten marine food chain off California
    on October 19, 2017 at 9:16 pm

    Environmental disturbances such as El Niño shake up the marine food web off Southern California, new research shows, countering conventional thinking that the hierarchy of who-eats-who in the ocean remains largely constant over time. […]

  • Ancient DNA offers new view on saber-toothed cats' past
    on October 19, 2017 at 6:30 pm

    Researchers who've analyzed the complete mitochondrial genomes from ancient samples representing two species of saber-toothed cats have a new take on the animals' history over the last 50,000 years. The data suggest that the saber-toothed cats shared a common ancestor with all living cat-like species about 20 million years ago. The two saber-toothed cat species under study diverged from each other about 18 million years ago. […]

  • Evolution in your back garden: Great tits may be adapting their beaks to birdfeeders
    on October 19, 2017 at 6:30 pm

    A British enthusiasm for feeding birds may have caused UK great tits to have evolved longer beaks than their European counterparts, according to new research. The findings identify for the first time the genetic differences between UK and Dutch great tits which researchers were then able to link to longer beaks in UK birds. […]

  • Water striders illustrate evolutionary processes
    on October 19, 2017 at 6:29 pm

    How do new species arise and diversify in nature? Natural selection offers an explanation, but the genetic and environmental conditions behind this mechanism are still poorly understood. Researchers have just figured out how water striders (family Veliidae) of the genus Rhagovelia developed fan-like structures at the tips of their legs. These structures allow them to move upstream against the current, a feat beyond the abilities of other water striders that don't have fans. […]

  • Gut bacterium indirectly causes symptoms by altering fruit fly microbiome
    on October 19, 2017 at 6:27 pm

    CagA, a protein produced by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, can alter the population of microbes living in the fruit fly gut, leading to disease symptoms, according to new research. […]

  • Last unknown structure of HIV-1 solved, another step in efforts to disarm the AIDS virus
    on October 19, 2017 at 4:37 pm

    Researchers have solved the last unknown protein structure of HIV-1, the retrovirus that can cause AIDS. This will further explain how the virus infects human cells and how progeny viruses are assembled and released from infected cells. […]

  • Researchers watch in real time as fat-encased drug nanoparticles invade skin cells
    on October 19, 2017 at 2:10 pm

    A new study describes the use of cutting-edge microscopy technology to visualize how liposomes escape from blood vessels into surrounding cells in a living mouse, offering clues that may help researchers design better drug delivery systems. […]

  • Superbug's artillery revealed: nanomachine secretes toxins
    on October 19, 2017 at 2:09 pm

    Researchers have created the first high-resolution structure depicting a crucial part of the 'superbug' Pseudomonas aeruginosa, classified by the WHO as having the highest level threat to human health. The image identifies the 'nanomachine' used by the highly virulent bacteria to secrete toxins, pointing the way for drug design targeting this. […]

  • Scientists find where HIV 'hides' to evade detection by the immune system
    on October 19, 2017 at 2:08 pm

    In a decades-long game of hide and seek, scientists have confirmed for the very first time the specific immune memory T-cells where infectious HIV 'hides' in the human body to evade detection by the immune system. […]

  • Obesity: Engineered proteins lower body weight in mice, rats and primates
    on October 18, 2017 at 7:18 pm

    Researchers have created engineered proteins that lowered body weight, bloodstream insulin, and cholesterol levels in obese mice, rats, and primates. […]

  • Duplications of noncoding DNA may have affected evolution of human-specific traits
    on October 18, 2017 at 5:32 pm

    Duplications of large segments of noncoding DNA in the human genome may have contributed to the emergence of differences between humans and nonhuman primates, according to new results. Identifying these duplications, which include regulatory sequences, and their effect on traits and behavior may help scientists explain genetic contributions to human disease. […]

  • DNA tests on albatross excrement reveal secret diet of top predator
    on October 18, 2017 at 3:35 pm

    A study that used DNA tests to analyse the scats of one of the world's most numerous albatrosses has revealed surprising results about the top predator's diet. DNA analysis of 1460 scats from breeding sites around the Southern Ocean has shown that the diet of black-browed albatrosses contains a much higher proportion of jellyfish than previously thought. […]

  • Competing forces: How molecules maintain their structure
    on October 18, 2017 at 3:35 pm

    A double helix twisted around itself: this is the distinctive structure of DNA, which is made up of large molecules. Using synthetically produced molecules, chemists and physicists have investigated the forces which are at work inside the molecule to give it its three-dimensional structure. […]

  • Stiff fibers spun from slime
    on October 18, 2017 at 3:35 pm

    Nanoparticles from the secretion of velvet worms form recyclable polymer fibers. […]

  • Turning brain cells into skin cells
    on October 18, 2017 at 3:35 pm

    A new study reveals that it is possible to repurpose the function of different mature cells across the body and harvest new tissue and organs from these cells. […]

  • Gene therapy can cure lameness in horses, research finds
    on October 18, 2017 at 1:11 pm

    Injecting DNA into injured horse tendons and ligaments can cure lameness, new research has found. […]

  • Yeast spotlights genetic variation's link to drug resistance
    on October 18, 2017 at 1:02 pm

    Researchers have shown that genetic diversity plays a key role in enabling drug resistance to evolve. Scientists show that high genetic diversity can prime new mutations that cause drug resistance. The study has implications for our understanding of the evolution of resistance to antimicrobial and anticancer drugs. […]

  • Single cell level sorting technology uses sound waves
    on October 17, 2017 at 3:01 pm

    Researchers have developed a highly accurate single cell sorting technology using focused sound waves. This new technology enables rapid and accurate isolation of single cells from complex biological samples, which will facilitate the broad application of single cell analysis toward precision medicine. […]

  • Scientists create most powerful micro-scale bio-solar cell yet
    on October 17, 2017 at 3:01 pm

    Researchers have created a micro-scale biological solar cell that generates a higher power density for longer than any existing cell of its kind. […]

  • Electroplating: The birth of a single nucleus caught in camera
    on October 17, 2017 at 3:00 pm

    Electroplating, or electrodeposition, is one of the most important processes in chemistry, in which a metal cation in solution can be reduced to its elemental form by applying an electrical potential to an electrode. […]

  • Need for speed makes genome editing efficient, if not better
    on October 17, 2017 at 3:00 pm

    Researchers have developed a computational model to quantify the mechanism by which CRISPR-Cas9 proteins find their genome-editing targets. […]

  • 'Hiding in plain sight:' Discovery raises questions over scale of overlooked biodiversity
    on October 17, 2017 at 1:19 pm

    Scientists have used cutting edge DNA technology to demonstrate that one of Europe's top freshwater predators is actually two species rather than one. […]

  • Keratin, proteins from 54-million-year-old sea turtle show survival trait evolution
    on October 17, 2017 at 1:18 pm

    Researchers have retrieved original pigment, beta-keratin and muscle proteins from a 54-million-year-old sea turtle hatchling. The work adds to the growing body of evidence supporting persistence of original molecules over millions of years and also provides direct evidence that a pigment-based survival trait common to modern sea turtles evolved at least 54 million years ago. […]

  • Pair of discoveries illuminate new paths to flu and anthrax treatments
    on October 17, 2017 at 1:18 pm

    Two recent studies have set the research groundwork for new avenues to treat influenza and anthrax poisoning. The studies used a series of experiments to identify key pathways and mechanisms previously unknown or overlooked in the body's defenses, and possible treatments already developed. […]

  • Oysters offer hot spot for reducing nutrient pollution
    on October 16, 2017 at 11:03 pm

    Marine scientists have quantified potentially denitrifying bacteria in the oyster gut and shell, with important implications for efforts to reduce nutrient levels in coastal waters through oyster restoration. […]

  • A new target for marijuana
    on October 16, 2017 at 5:27 pm

    Cellular-level changes to a part of the brain's reward system induced by chronic exposure to the psychoactive component of marijuana may contribute to the drug's pleasurable and potentially addictive qualities, suggests a study in young mice. […]

  • How cells induce inflammation upon detection of cytoplasmic DNA
    on October 16, 2017 at 4:21 pm

    A research team has elucidated the mechanism by which human cells induce inflammation upon detection of cytoplasmic DNA. Notably, the signal network involved differs from that used in the same context in mice. […]

  • New antibiotic resistance genes found
    on October 16, 2017 at 12:19 pm

    Researchers have found several previously unknown genes that make bacteria resistant to last-resort antibiotics. The genes were found by searching large volumes of bacterial DNA. […]