Cell Biology

Cell Biology News -- ScienceDaily Cell biology news. Read the latest research news on cell biology and see related videos.

  • Nanodiscs catch misfolding proteins red-handed
    on December 15, 2017 at 6:51 pm

    When proteins misfold, accumulate and clump around insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, they kill cells. Now, researchers have obtained a structural snapshot of these proteins when they are most toxic, detailing them down to the atomic level. […]

  • Genetic instructions from mom set the pattern for embryonic development
    on December 15, 2017 at 5:47 pm

    A new study indicates an essential role for a maternally inherited gene in embryonic development. The study found that zebrafish that failed to inherit specific genetic instructions from mom developed fatal defects earlier in development, even if the fish could make their own version of the gene. […]

  • Nanoparticles as a solution against antibiotic resistance?
    on December 15, 2017 at 2:44 pm

    Scientists have succeeded in developing an efficient method to treat mucoviscidosis. Crucial are nanoparticles that transport the antibiotics more efficiently to their destination. First of all, the active particles need to have a certain size to be able to reach the deeper airways and not to bounce off somewhere else before. Ultimately, they have to penetrate the thick layer of mucus on the airways as well as the lower layers of the bacteria biofilm. […]

  • First-of-its-kind chemical oscillator offers new level of molecular control
    on December 14, 2017 at 11:18 pm

    Researchers successfully constructed a first-of-its-kind chemical oscillator that uses DNA components. DNA molecules that follow specific instructions could offer more precise molecular control of synthetic chemical systems, a discovery that opens the door for engineers to create molecular machines with new and complex behaviors. […]

  • Bioluminescent worm found to have iron superpowers
    on December 14, 2017 at 8:33 pm

    Researchers have made a discovery with potential human health impacts in a parchment tubeworm, found to have ferritin with the fastest catalytic performance ever described. […]

  • Mechanism identified of impaired dendritic cell function that weakens response to cancer
    on December 14, 2017 at 8:33 pm

    The mechanism implicated in the defective function of tumor-associated dendritic cells (DCs), a specialized type of immune cells that expose the antigens on their surface to activate the T cells, has now been revealed by researchers. […]

  • Revealing the best-kept secrets of proteins
    on December 14, 2017 at 8:33 pm

    A new approach for identifying important undiscovered functions of proteins has been revealed by a team of researchers. […]

  • Stressed-out worms hit the snooze button
    on December 14, 2017 at 7:19 pm

    When you catch a nasty cold, curling up in bed to sleep may be the only activity you can manage. Sleeping in response to stress isn't a uniquely human behavior: many other animals have the same reaction, and it's not clear why. While the circadian sleep that follows the pattern of the clock has been studied extensively, sleep that's triggered by stress is far less understood. […]

  • Scientists advance knowledge of plant reproduction
    on December 14, 2017 at 7:08 pm

    Two groups of plant molecular biologists have long studied how pollen tubes and pistils, the male and female parts of flowers, communicate to achieve fertilization in plants. Now they report that they have identified a pair of receptors essential to these communications as well as molecules that modulate the receptors' activity. […]

  • To sleep or not: Researchers explore complex genetic network behind sleep duration
    on December 14, 2017 at 7:04 pm

    Scientists have identified differences in a group of genes they say might help explain why some people need a lot more sleep -- and others less -- than most. The study, conducted using fruit fly populations bred to model natural variations in human sleep patterns, provides new clues to how genes for sleep duration are linked to a wide variety of biological processes. […]

  • DNA: Supercoiling pushes molecular handcuffs along chromatin fibres
    on December 14, 2017 at 3:13 pm

    As it squeezes down the chromatin fiber, the cohesin protein complex extrudes a growing loop of DNA -- a bit like the quick-lacing system of trail-running shoes. But what is powering the movement of the protein? A team of scientists has found that the driving force could be the supercoiling of upstream DNA. Their research is thereby adding a key piece to the puzzle of gene expression regulation. […]

  • Ancient genetic mutation helps explain origin of some human organs
    on December 14, 2017 at 3:08 pm

    A genetic mutation that occurred over 700 million years ago may have contributed to the development of certain organs in human beings and other vertebrates. This change, a random error in the evolutionary process, facilitated the connection of the gene networks involved in animal embryogenesis. […]

  • Tracing a plant's steps: Following seed dispersal using chloroplast DNA
    on December 14, 2017 at 3:07 pm

    Researchers have developed a new tool to sequence chloroplast DNA from hundreds of plants at once, to learn more about how plant populations move. This tool, CallHap, makes it cheaper and easier to sequence the chloroplast genomes of large numbers of plants and accurately track seed dispersal across landscapes. […]

  • Synthetic protein packages its own genetic material and evolves
    on December 14, 2017 at 2:23 pm

    Scientists have created computationally designed protein assemblies, that display some functions normally associated with living things, in the search for ways to transport therapeutic cargo into specific types of cells without using viruses as vehicles. These encapsulate their own RNA genomes and evolve new traits in complex environments. They are synthetic versions of the protein shells that viruses use to protect and deliver materials. The synthetic proteins evolved better RNA packaging, resistance against degrading enzymes in blood and longer circulation time. […]

  • Mapping the evolutionary history of a sugar gene
    on December 14, 2017 at 3:01 am

    The gene CMAH, that allows for the synthesis of a sugar called Neu5Gc, is missing from humans. This sugar is present in red meats, some fish and dairy products. When humans consume an animal with that gene, the body has an immune reaction to the foreign sugar, which can cause inflammation, arthritis, and cancer. Researchers have analyzed 322 animal genome sequences looking for animals with the presence of active CMAH genes. […]

  • Scientists call for improved technologies to save imperiled California salmon
    on December 14, 2017 at 3:01 am

    Scientists working to protect California's most endangered salmon say that key improvements in tracking Sacramento River winter-run Chinook through California's complex water delivery system would help recover the species while the water continues to flow. […]

  • Microbes help turn Greek yogurt waste into fuel
    on December 13, 2017 at 7:37 pm

    Consumers across the world enjoy Greek yogurt for its taste, texture, and protein-packed punch. Reaching that perfect formula, however, generates large volumes of food waste in the form of liquid whey. Now researchers have found a way to use bacteria to turn the leftover sugars and acids from Greek yogurt into molecules that could be used in biofuels or safe feedstock additives. […]

  • Immune cells turn back time to achieve memory
    on December 13, 2017 at 7:36 pm

    What distinguishes memory CD8 T cells from untrained naive cells is that they can respond rapidly, within minutes or hours. The new research illuminates how they do it -- their genes are poised to respond, even years after initial activation. […]

  • Lactic acid bacteria can protect against influenza a virus
    on December 13, 2017 at 6:03 pm

    Lactic acid bacteria, commonly used as probiotics to improve digestive health, can offer protection against different subtypes of influenza A virus, resulting in reduced weight loss after virus infection and lower amounts of virus replication in the lungs, according to a new study. […]

  • Chimpanzee deaths in Uganda pinned on human cold virus
    on December 13, 2017 at 6:02 pm

    In the wild, chimpanzees face any number of dire threats, ranging from poachers to predators to deforestation. That’s why scientists, investigating an outbreak of respiratory disease in a community of wild chimpanzees in Uganda’s Kibale National Park, were surprised and dismayed to discover that a human “common cold” virus known as rhinovirus C was killing healthy chimps. […]

  • Cells sense their environment to explore it
    on December 13, 2017 at 5:58 pm

    The process through which cells are able to sense their environment is regulated by force detection, concludes new research. […]

  • New insights could lead to lasting improvement of stem cell therapy in horses
    on December 13, 2017 at 5:51 pm

    Stem cells have been used therapeutically in horses for many years as a treatment option for tendon and joint injuries. These cells are commonly obtained surgically from bone marrow or fat tissue. Researchers have now for the first time managed to harvest stem cells from the mucous membrane of the equine uterus. By taking stem cells from the uterus without the need for surgical intervention, the procedure provides an alternative with reduced pain and stress for the animals. […]

  • Converting waste water from dairies to animal feed and aviation fuel
    on December 13, 2017 at 5:49 pm

    Scientists have developed a bioprocess that enables conversion of acid whey, a dairy by-product, without the use of additional chemicals. Scientists used microbiome cultures similar to those in the human gut. The new bio-oil can be used in animal feed or, after further refinement, as a fuel for airplanes. […]

  • Structure of molecular light switch -- channelrhodopsin -- determined
    on December 13, 2017 at 4:58 pm

    Researchers discover structure and mechanism of action of molecular light switch, paving the way for new applications. […]

  • Bacterial control mechanism for adjusting to changing conditions
    on December 13, 2017 at 4:58 pm

    A fundamental prerequisite for life on earth is the ability of living organisms to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Physicists have now determined that the regulation mechanisms used by bacteria to adapt to different environments are based on a global control process that can be described in a single equation. […]

  • BigH1: The key histone for male fertility
    on December 13, 2017 at 4:58 pm

    Researchers have unraveled the role of the histone BigH1 in the development of male sex cells from stem cells. Their study, which was performed in Drosophila melanogaster, paves the way to a greater understanding of male infertility. Published in Cell Reports, the work sheds light on the mechanisms through which histones regulate how stem cells give rise to differentiated cells. […]

  • Specially designed protein fights several species of bacteria
    on December 13, 2017 at 3:49 pm

    As resistance to existing antibiotics increases, new approaches to serious bacterial infections are needed. Now researchers have investigated one such alternative. […]

  • New active ingredients from the toolbox: Design, biotechnological production of new peptide-based...
    on December 13, 2017 at 3:49 pm

    Microorganisms often produce natural products in a step-by-step manner similar to an assembly line. Examples of such enzymes are non-ribosomal peptide synthetases. Researchers have now succeeded in designing these enzymes in such a way that they can produce completely new natural products. […]

  • Technology detecting RNase activity
    on December 13, 2017 at 2:56 pm

    Scientists have developed new technology to detect the activity of RNase H, a RNA degrading enzyme. The team used highly efficient signal amplification reaction termed catalytic hairpin assembly (CHA) to effectively analyze the RNase H activity. Considering that RNase H is required in the proliferation of retroviruses such as HIV, this research finding could contribute to AIDS treatments in the future, researchers say. […]

  • Important new aspects are revealed about the control of cell division
    on December 12, 2017 at 5:54 pm

    Experts have published a new study on the mechanisms that regulate cell division and guarantee the correct distribution of chromosomes during this process. In particular, they especially highlight the fundamental role that an organelle, specifically the nucleolus, plays in the coordination of these processes. […]