Genetics

Genetics News -- ScienceDaily Genetics research. Read the latest news on plant and animal genetics from universities and research institutes around the world.

  • How immature cells grow up to be red blood cells
    on August 18, 2017 at 4:35 pm

    Researchers have identified the mechanism behind red blood cell specialization and revealed that it is controlled by an enzyme called UBE2O. This finding could spark the development of new treatments for blood disorders and cancers. […]

  • Cheesemaking secret unlocked
    on August 18, 2017 at 2:23 pm

    Researchers say their new knowledge on the inner workings of a bacterium has important implications for Australia's billion dollar cheese industry. The research group has explained the regulation of an enzyme in the bacterium Lactococcus, which is used as a starter culture in cheese production. […]

  • How whip-like cell appendages promote bodily fluid flow
    on August 18, 2017 at 2:23 pm

    Researchers have revealed that a molecule called Daple is essential for the correct orientation and coordinated beating of cilia on the surface of cells lining ventricles in the brain. Without Daple, the cilia develop a random arrangement and cannot produce a uniform flow of CSF. This in turn leads to a build-up of fluid, which is associated with swelling of the head, known as hydrocephalus. […]

  • Mitochondria: A map of the cell's powerhouse
    on August 18, 2017 at 2:23 pm

    Researchers are mapping the distribution of all proteins in mitochondria for the first time. […]

  • Histone 1, the guardian of genome stability
    on August 18, 2017 at 1:21 pm

    Genomic instability is the main risk factor for tumor development in humans. Therefore understanding its origin and and exploring therapeutic targets is paramount. Histone 1 silences a region of the genome that causes irreparable DNA damage when translated and is lethal for the organism. […]

  • Gene variant activity is surprisingly variable between tissues
    on August 18, 2017 at 1:21 pm

    Every tissue has its own pattern of active alleles, a large-scale study has found. Researchers were able to show that the differential allele activity is regulated by tissue-specific, regulatory DNA elements known as enhancers - a process that could also be involved in many diseases. […]

  • Gene that makes large, plump tomatoes identified
    on August 17, 2017 at 6:18 pm

    Farmers can grow big, juicy tomatoes thanks to a mutation in the cell size regulator gene that occurred during the tomato domestication process. […]

  • Worm atlas profiles gene readouts in every cell type in the animal
    on August 17, 2017 at 6:18 pm

    A worm atlas has been built that profiles gene readouts for every kind of cell in the animal. This is the first time this type of comprehensive profiling for a multi-cellular organism has been created. The study was conducted at a larval stage of the roundworm C. elegans. The resource should have many uses, such as for studies on how genetic instructions guide the formation of body parts. […]

  • Super-photostable fluorescent labeling agent for super-resolution microscopy
    on August 17, 2017 at 6:17 pm

    Chemists have developed a super-photostable fluorescent dye, PhoxBright 430 (PB430), to visualize cellular ultrastructure by super resolution microscopy. The exceptional photostability of this new dye enables continuous STED imaging and together with its ability to fluorescently label proteins, PB430 demonstrates its use in the 3D construction and multicolor imaging of biological structures. […]

  • Bacteria stab amoebae with micro-daggers
    on August 17, 2017 at 6:15 pm

    Researchers have discovered a type of bacteria that uses tiny daggers to prevent itself from being eaten by amoebae. The scientists also resolved the three-dimensional structure of the mechanism that allows the micro-daggers to be shot quickly. […]

  • Peroxisomes identified as 'fighters' in the battle against bacterial infections
    on August 17, 2017 at 4:21 pm

    Peroxisomes are required for cells in the innate immune response to bacteria and fungi. Now scientists have found that peroxisomes are necessary for proper functioning of the innate immune system, the body's first line of defense against microorganisms. […]

  • Olfactory receptors that enable ants to smell and recognize workers, males, and their queen...
    on August 17, 2017 at 4:21 pm

    To reign supreme in a colony, queen ants exude a special scent, or pheromone, on the waxy surface of their body that suppresses ovary development in their sisters, rendering the latter reproductively inactive workers that find food, nurse the young and protect the colony. Now, researchers have begun to unravel the molecular mechanisms behind how ants sense these pheromones and how they control reproduction regulation and other social activities in ant communities. […]

  • Are stem cells the link between bacteria and cancer?
    on August 17, 2017 at 1:28 pm

    A new mechanism of stomach gland regeneration reveals impact of Helicobacter pylori infection. […]

  • Study shows response to phytase varies among canola meal varieties
    on August 16, 2017 at 10:14 pm

    Canola meal, which is included in diets fed to pigs as a protein source, is also relatively high in phosphorus. However, most of the phosphorus in canola meal is bound to phytic acid, and microbial phytase is often added to diets to help make more phosphorus available to pigs. New research shows that not all kinds of canola meal respond equally to the addition of phytase. […]

  • Problems with DNA replication can cause epigenetic changes that may be inherited for several...
    on August 16, 2017 at 6:53 pm

    Scientists reveal that a fault in the process that copies DNA during cell division can cause epigenetic changes that may be inherited for up-to five generations. They also identified the cause of these epigenetic changes, which is related to the loss of a molecular mechanism in charge of silencing genes. Their results will change the way we think about the impact of replication stress in cancer and during embryonic development, as well as its inter-generational inheritance. […]

  • Using barcodes to trace cell development
    on August 16, 2017 at 5:46 pm

    There are various concepts about how blood cells develop. However, they are based almost exclusively on experiments that solely reflect snapshots. Scientists now present a novel technique that captures the process in a dynamic way. Using a 'random generator,' the researchers label hematopoietic stem cells with genetic barcodes that enable them to trace which cell types arise from the stem cell. […]

  • Modern genetic sequencing tools give clearer picture of how corals are related
    on August 16, 2017 at 5:46 pm

    As corals face threats from ocean warming, a new study uses the latest genetic-sequencing tools to help unravel the relationships between three similar-looking corals. […]

  • Understanding how fish grow their hearts could help humans, professor finds
    on August 16, 2017 at 3:01 pm

    A protein that enables fish to change the size of their hearts based on the temperature of the water has now been identified by researchers. Understanding how fish are able to naturally add and remove collagen could lead to the development of treatment modalities for humans that enables a more controlled way for the heart to repair itself after a heart attack. […]

  • New plant discovered in Shetland
    on August 16, 2017 at 2:02 pm

    Scientists have discovered a new type of plant growing in Shetland -- with its evolution only having occurred in the last 200 years. […]

  • Understanding antibiotic resistance
    on August 15, 2017 at 4:49 pm

    Researchers have uncovered new insights into how bacteria respond to stress. When deprived of nutrients, strains of the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae mount a coordinated defense. When exposed to antibiotics, the bacterial response is highly disorganized, revealing the bacteria are far less familiar with antibiotics and do not recognize how to respond. […]

  • Gene that controls immune response to chronic viral infections identified
    on August 15, 2017 at 4:05 pm

    A gene that helps some people and animals fend off persistent viral infections has now been discovered by a team of scientists. […]

  • How a nutrient, glutamine, can control gene programs in cells
    on August 15, 2017 at 4:05 pm

    Researchers show that an intracellular metabolite of glutamine, alpha-ketoglutarate, plays a role in regulating cellular differentiation programs by changing the DNA-binding patterns of the transcription factor CTCF and by altering genome interactions. As an added level of gene program control complexity, they have found that the genome's context near the binding sites -- such as epigenetic changes or altered genome topology -- affects whether the binding turns on or turns off gene programs. […]

  • The lining of our intestines uses business process for fast digestion
    on August 15, 2017 at 4:04 pm

    Every time we swallow food, cells that line the intestines must step up their activity in a sudden and dramatic manner. According to a new study, they rise to the challenge in the most economic fashion. […]

  • Epigenetic drugs show promise as antivirals
    on August 15, 2017 at 3:10 pm

    Some epigenetic pharmaceuticals have the potential to be used as broad spectrum antivirals, according to a new study. The study demonstrated that histone methyltransferases EZH2/1 inhibitors, which are being used in cancer clinical trials, have activity against a variety of viruses, including herpes simplex virus (HSV). […]

  • 'Acidic patch' regulates access to genetic information
    on August 15, 2017 at 1:51 pm

    Researchers have uncovered new details about the way in which DNA, which is tightly packed into the cell's nucleus, is unwound so that it can be read and transcribed into proteins. […]

  • How head-on collisions of DNA protein machines stop replication
    on August 15, 2017 at 1:51 pm

    Head-on collisions between the protein machines that crawl along chromosomes can disrupt DNA replication and boost gene mutation rates. This may be one of the ways bacteria control their evolution by accelerating mutations in key genes when coping with new conditions. Some mutations may help bacteria survive hostile environments, resist antibiotics or fend off immune attacks. […]

  • Plant-produced polio vaccines could help eradicate age-old disease
    on August 15, 2017 at 1:51 pm

    Plants have been used to produce a new vaccine against poliovirus in what is hoped to be a major step towards global eradication of the disease. […]

  • An immune signaling pathway for control of yellow fever virus infection
    on August 15, 2017 at 1:50 pm

    Researchers have uncovered a critical role for a new immune signaling pathway in controlling infection by the flavivirus Yellow Fever Virus (YFV). […]

  • Mercury is altering gene expression
    on August 15, 2017 at 1:50 pm

    Mercury causes severe neurological disorders in people who have consumed highly contaminated fish. Whereas we know about the element's extreme toxicity, what happens further down the food chain, all the way down to those microalgae that are the first level and the gateway for mercury? By employing molecular biology tools, a team of researchers measured the way mercury affects the gene expression of algae, even when its concentration in water is very low. […]

  • A way to stabilize haploidy in animal cells
    on August 14, 2017 at 7:15 pm

    The emergence, in recent years, of the first mammalian haploid cell lines has raised great expectations in the scientific community. Despite their potential, these cultures present some issues that make their use complicated because haploidy is unstable and can be lost quickly. Researchers now offer an explanation of this phenomenon and proposes a way to overcome it. […]