Molecular Biology

Molecular Biology News -- ScienceDaily Molecular biology. Read the latest research on molecular biology or search thousands of news articles with images from leading universities and research institutes.

  • Chromosomes may be knotted
    on October 20, 2017 at 2:16 pm

    Little is known about the structures of our genetic material, chromosomes, which consist of long strings that -- according to our experience -- should be likely to become knotted. However, up to now it has not been possible to study this experimentally. Researchers have now found that chromosomes may indeed be knotted. […]

  • Obesity: Engineered proteins lower body weight in mice, rats and primates
    on October 18, 2017 at 7:18 pm

    Researchers have created engineered proteins that lowered body weight, bloodstream insulin, and cholesterol levels in obese mice, rats, and primates. […]

  • Turning brain cells into skin cells
    on October 18, 2017 at 3:35 pm

    A new study reveals that it is possible to repurpose the function of different mature cells across the body and harvest new tissue and organs from these cells. […]

  • Gene therapy can cure lameness in horses, research finds
    on October 18, 2017 at 1:11 pm

    Injecting DNA into injured horse tendons and ligaments can cure lameness, new research has found. […]

  • Single cell level sorting technology uses sound waves
    on October 17, 2017 at 3:01 pm

    Researchers have developed a highly accurate single cell sorting technology using focused sound waves. This new technology enables rapid and accurate isolation of single cells from complex biological samples, which will facilitate the broad application of single cell analysis toward precision medicine. […]

  • Scientists create most powerful micro-scale bio-solar cell yet
    on October 17, 2017 at 3:01 pm

    Researchers have created a micro-scale biological solar cell that generates a higher power density for longer than any existing cell of its kind. […]

  • Need for speed makes genome editing efficient, if not better
    on October 17, 2017 at 3:00 pm

    Researchers have developed a computational model to quantify the mechanism by which CRISPR-Cas9 proteins find their genome-editing targets. […]

  • Pair of discoveries illuminate new paths to flu and anthrax treatments
    on October 17, 2017 at 1:18 pm

    Two recent studies have set the research groundwork for new avenues to treat influenza and anthrax poisoning. The studies used a series of experiments to identify key pathways and mechanisms previously unknown or overlooked in the body's defenses, and possible treatments already developed. […]

  • How cells induce inflammation upon detection of cytoplasmic DNA
    on October 16, 2017 at 4:21 pm

    A research team has elucidated the mechanism by which human cells induce inflammation upon detection of cytoplasmic DNA. Notably, the signal network involved differs from that used in the same context in mice. […]

  • Worms reveal secrets of aging
    on October 13, 2017 at 4:51 pm

    Investigators have identified a new molecular pathway that controls lifespan and healthspan in worms and mammals. Researchers have shown that worms with excess levels of certain proteins lived longer and healthier than normal worms. In addition, mice with excess levels of these proteins demonstrated a delay in blood vessel dysfunction associated with aging. The study has major implications for our understanding of aging and age-associated disorders. […]

  • Cell biology: Proteins may prevent dysfunction, disease by relaxing, study shows
    on October 13, 2017 at 1:19 pm

    A team of researchers used simulations and X-rays to conclude that disordered proteins remain unfolded and expanded as they float loose in the cytoplasm of a cell. The answer affects how we envision the movement of a protein through its life--essential for understanding how proteins fold, what goes wrong during disorders and disease and how to model their behavior. […]

  • How E. coli bacteria adapt under stress
    on October 13, 2017 at 1:10 pm

    Researchers have developed a genome-scale model that can accurately predict how E. coli bacteria respond to temperature changes and genetic mutations. The work sheds light on how cells adapt under environmental stress and has applications in precision medicine, where adaptive cell modeling could provide patient-specific treatments for bacterial infections. […]

  • 3D packaging of DNA regulates cell identity
    on October 12, 2017 at 7:18 pm

    The ability of a stem cell to differentiate into cardiac muscle (and by extension other cell types) depends on what portions of the genome are available for activation, which is controlled by the location of DNA in a cell's nucleus, new research suggests. […]

  • Cell biology: Cell contacts in embryonic development determine cellular fate
    on October 12, 2017 at 6:33 pm

    The average human consists of about 37.2 trillion cells. But not all cells are created equal: while muscle cells contain the molecular machinery to contract and relax your muscles, some neurons send meter-long axons from the spinal cord to the tip of your toes, and red blood cells bind oxygen and transport it around the body. How does a cell 'know' which function to fulfill? […]

  • How switches work in bacteria
    on October 12, 2017 at 4:28 pm

    Many bacteria have molecular control elements, via which they can switch on and off genes. These riboswitches also open up new options in the development of antibiotics or for the detection and decomposition of environmental toxins. Researchers have now used light optical microscopy of single molecules to fundamentally study the way riboswitches work. […]

  • Universality and specificity in protein motions
    on October 12, 2017 at 3:14 pm

    Although proteins have very different function functions, or specialties, in living cells, they share the general characteristics -- the same universality -- in their motions, say scientists. Their motion is much like mountain landslides or wildfires, they report. […]

  • Novel mechanism protects mitochondrial DNA
    on October 12, 2017 at 3:14 pm

    Researchers have discovered a novel mechanism safeguarding mitochondrial DNA. A central part of the protective mechanism is an unusual enzyme, PrimPol, which can re-initiate mitochondrial DNA replication after damage. […]

  • Pioneering discovery of an odor-detecting receptor enhancer
    on October 12, 2017 at 2:36 pm

    Scientists have identified a regulatory sequence that turns gene expression on, or simply an enhancer, for odor-detecting receptors, which form one of the largest gene clusters in the mouse genome. This was done using a combination of research methods, including the CRISPR-Cas9 system, which is a genome editing technique, the Bacillus subtilis synthetic genome vector system, which is a cloning system for large DNA fragments, and bioinformatics. […]

  • Deciphering biological meaning from an atlas of gene expression across 42 tissue types
    on October 11, 2017 at 5:17 pm

    The human genome encodes instructions for which genes are expressed in what cell type, along with other molecules that control how much and when these genes are expressed. Variation in the regulation of gene expression gives rise to the diverse tissue types, with diverse functions, in the human body. Finding new clues about the molecular origins of disease is the goal for a comprehensive atlas of variation in gene expression. […]

  • Defense mechanism to kill intestinal worms
    on October 11, 2017 at 4:38 pm

    Researchers have discovered a mechanism that kills intestinal worms, which affect nearly a third of the world's population as well as livestock. […]

  • Some plants grow bigger -- and 'meaner' -- when clipped, study finds
    on October 11, 2017 at 4:03 pm

    Some plants behave like the mythical monster Hydra: Cut off their heads and they grow back, bigger and better than before. A new study finds that these 'overcompensators,' as they are called, also augment their defensive chemistry -- think plant venom -- when they are clipped. The discovery could lead to the development of new methods for boosting plant growth while reducing the need for insecticides, the researchers said. […]

  • Predatory bacteria: The quest for a new class of antibiotics
    on October 11, 2017 at 2:07 pm

    Researchers take one step forward toward understanding and genetically manipulating B. bacteriovorus, a type of bacteria with promising potential use as a living antibiotic. […]

  • How rabies can induce frenzied behavior
    on October 11, 2017 at 1:18 pm

    Scientists may finally understand how the rabies virus can drastically change its host's behavior to help spread the disease, which kills about 59,000 people annually. A new study shows how a small piece of the rabies virus can bind to and inhibit certain receptors in the brain that play a crucial role in regulating the behavior of mammals. This interferes with communication in the brain and induces frenzied behaviors that favor the transmission of the virus. […]

  • Hibernating ribosomes help bacteria survive
    on October 11, 2017 at 12:01 am

    Scientists are uncovering the secrets of how ribosomes hibernate under stressful conditions. […]

  • Unexpected regulation of transcription factors critical to development
    on October 10, 2017 at 6:32 pm

    Developmental biologists have for the first time described how two transcription factors that are 'absolutely essential for human development' are regulated by a cell surface metalloprotease known as ADAM13. The discovery adds to knowledge of how cells migrate in vertebrate embryos, how stem cells differentiate and how cancer cells metastasize. […]

  • A molecular garbage disposal complex has a role in packing the genome
    on October 10, 2017 at 6:03 pm

    New research has found that the proteasome, an essential protein complex that breaks down proteins in cells, has another unexpected function: directly regulating the packing of DNA in the nucleus. […]

  • Protein restricts sap uptake by aphids
    on October 10, 2017 at 5:02 pm

    Researchers have discovered how plants can defend themselves against aphids. They recorded aphid behavior on video, and identified a plant protein that keeps aphids from feeding. […]

  • Breeding salt-tolerant plants
    on October 10, 2017 at 4:40 pm

    The quinoa plant might serve as a model for making other crops salt-tolerant. It grows well on saline soils because the excess salt is simply dumped into special bladders on its leaves. […]

  • Parasite study paves way for therapies to tackle deadly infections
    on October 10, 2017 at 3:46 pm

    New understanding of a parasite that causes a million cases of disease each year could point towards effective drug treatments. […]

  • Evolutionary stepping stone to beet-red beets discovered
    on October 10, 2017 at 2:56 pm

    Scientists describe an ancient loosening up of a key biochemical pathway that set the stage for the ancestors of beets to develop their characteristic red pigment. […]